Annual Report 2013 | Suomeksi |

32 Pension obligations

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Accounting policies + -
The Group companies have various pension schemes in accordance with the local conditions and practises in the countries in which they operate. The schemes are generally funded through payments to insurance companies or Group’s pension fund as determined by periodic actuarial calculations. The Group has both defined benefit and defined contribution plans.
The Group's contributions to defined contribution plans are charged to the income statement in the period to which the contributions relate.
For defined benefit plans, pension costs are assessed using the projected unit credit method. The cost of providing pensions is charged to the income statement as to spread the service cost over the service lives of employees. The net interest is presented in financial items and the rest of the income statement effect as pension cost.
The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually on the balance sheet date and is measured as the present value of the estimated future cash flows using interest rates of high-quality corporate bonds that have terms to maturity approximating to the terms of the related pension liability. In countries where there is no deep market in such bonds, market yields on government bonds are used instead. The plan assets for pensions are valued at market value. The liability recognised in the balance sheet is the defined benefit obligation at the closing date less the fair value of plan assets. Prepaid contributions are recognised as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in the future payments is available.
When the benefits of a plan are changed or when a plan is curtailed, the resulting change in benefit that relates to past service or the gain or loss related to a curtailment is recognised immediately in profit or loss. Gains or losses on settlements of defined benefits plans are recognised when the settlement occurs.
Critical accounting estimates: Assumptions used to determine future pension obligations + -
The present value of the pension obligations is based on actuarial calculations that use several assumptions. Any changes in these assumptions will impact the carrying amount of pension obligations.
Fortum's pension arrangements
In Finland the most significant pension plan is the Finnish Statutory Employment Pension Scheme (TyEL) in which benefits are directly linked to employees' earnings. These pensions are funded in insurance companies and treated as defined contribution plans. The benefits provided under TyEL are old age pensions, disability pensions, unemployment pensions and survivors' pensions. Certain Fortum employees in Finland have an additional pension coverage, certain level of benefit promised after retirement, through the company's own pension fund (Fortum Pension Fund) or through insurance companies. The additional pensions through insurance companies provide old age pension and funeral grant and Fortum Pension Fund is providing old age pension, early old age benefit, disability pension, survivor’s pension and funeral grant.
The Fortum Pension Fund is a closed fund managed by a Board, consisting of both employer's and employees' representatives. The Fund is operating under regulation from Financial Supervisory Authority (FSA). The liability has to be fully covered according to the regulations. The national benefit obligation related to the defined benefit plans is calculated so that the promised benefit is fully funded until retirement. After retirement the benefits payables are indexed yearly with TyEL-index.
The promised benefit is defined in the rules of the Fund, mostly 66% at a maximum of the salary basis.The salary basis is an average of ten last year's salaries, which are indexed with common salary index to accounting year.
In Sweden the Group operates several defined benefit and defined contribution plans like the general ITP-pension plan and the PA-KL and PA-KFS plans that are eligible for employees within companies formerly owned by municipalities. The defined benefit plans are fully funded and have partly been financed through Fortum’s own pension fund and partly through insurance premiums. The pension arrangements comprise normal retirement pension, complementary retirement pensions, survivors' pension and disability pension. The most significant pension plan is the ITP-plan for white-collar employees in permanent employment (or temporary employees after a certain waiting period), who fulfill the age conditions. To qualify for a full pension the employee must have a projected period of pensionable service, from the date of entry until retirement age, of at least 30 years.
The Swedish pension fund is managed by a Board, consisting of both employers' and employees' representatives. The fund is operating under regulation from Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority and the County Administrative Board and governed by Swedish law (no. 1967:531).
The fund constitutes a security for the employer’s defined benefit pension plan liability and the fund has no obligations in relation to pension payments. The employer must have a credit insurance from PRI Pensionsgaranti Mutual Insurance Company for the liability. The liability must not be fully covered by the fund according to the regulations.
The part of the ITP multiemployer pension plan that is secured by paying pension premiums to Alecta, in Fortum’s case the collective family pension, is accounted for as a defined contribution plan due to that there is no consistent and reliable basis to allocate assets or liabilities to the participating entities within the ITP insurance. The reason for this is that it is not possible to determine from the terms of the plan to which extent a surplus or a deficit will affect future contributions.
Pension arrangements in other countries
Pension arrangements in Russia and Poland include payments made to the state pension fund. These arrangements are treated as defined contribution plans. In addition the Russian and Polish companies participate in certain defined benefit plans, defined by collective agreements, which are unfunded and where the company meets the benefit payment obligation as it falls due. The benefits provided under these arrangements include, in addition to pension payments, one-time benefits paid in case of employee mortality or disability as well as lump sum payments for anniversary and financial support to honored workers and pensioners.
The Norwegian companies are part of schemes that are common for municipalities in Norway. These are defined benefit pension plans and provide old age pensions, disability pension and survivor’s pension, including pension benefits from the National Insurance Scheme (Folketrygden). The schemes are fully funded within the rules set out in the Norwegian insurance legislation.
In other countries the pension arrangements are done in accordance with the local legislation and practice, mostly being defined contribution plans.
Main risks relating to defined benefit plans - Sweden and Finland
Overall risks
Sweden - As the pension fund is separated from the funding companies Fortum is not obliged to make additional contributions to the pension fund in any case of deficit. However if the assets decrease to a level lower than the liability according to Swedish GAAP, Fortum's credit insurance cost from PRI will increase.
Finland - If the return of fund’s assets is not enough to cover the raise in liability and benefit payments over the financial year then the employer funds the deficit with contributions unless the fund has sufficient equity.
Change in discount rate
Sweden - The discount rate which is used to calculate the defined benefit obligation is derived from market rates on Swedish covered bonds with an equivalent duration to the pension obligation, and the company therefore has a risk in the development on the bond market. Should the market rates decrease then the liability increases.
Finland - The discount rate which is used to calculate the defined benefit obligation (according to IFRS) depends on the value of corporate bond yields as at reporting date. A decrease in yields increases the benefit obligation that is offset by increase in the value of fixed income holdings.
Investment and volatility risk
Finland - The pension fund's board accepts yearly an Investment Plan, which is based on the external asset-liability analysis. The assets are allocated to stocks and stock funds, fixed income instruments and real estate. The investments are diversified into different asset classes and to different asset managers taking into account the regulation of the Financial Supervisory Authority. The real estate investments consist mainly of the Fortum headquarters, rented by Fortum Oyj.
Risks relating to assumptions used
Actuarial calculations use assumptions for future inflation and salary levels and longevity. Should the actual outcome differ from these assumptions, this might lead to higher liability.
Movement in the net defined benefit liability
Defined benefit obligation Fair value
of plan assets
Net defined benefit
EUR million 2013 2012 2013 2012 2013 2012
Balance at 1 January 652 581 -500 -460 152 121
Included in profit or loss
Current service cost 15 15 15 15
Past service cost 0 0
Settlements -42 1 4 -38 1
Curtailments -1 -1
Net interest 1) 18 20 -14 -16 4 4
-9 35 -10 -16 -19 19
Included in OCI
Remeasurement gains(+)/losses(-) -55 47 -22 -21 -77 26
Actuarial gains/losses arising from changes in demographic assumptions 0
Actuarial gains/losses arising from changes in financial assumptions -69 59 -69 59
Actuarial gains/losses arising from experience adjustments 14 -12 14 -12
Return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest expense) -22 -21 -22 -21
Exchange rate differences -15 12 10 -9 -5 3
-70 59 -12 -30 -82 29
Contributions paid by the employer -6 -6 -6 -6
Benefits paid -22 -23 13 12 -9 -11
Transfer of assets in to insurance company in Sweden 29 29 -
Balance at 31 December 551 652 -486 -500 65 152
Present value of funded defined obligation 540 638
Fair value of plan assets -485 -496
Funded status 55 142
Present value of unfunded obligation 2) 10 10
Net liability arising from defined benefit obligation 65 152
Defined benefit obligations included in the non-current liabilities 65 152
Defined benefit assets included in the non-current assets 0 0
Net defined benefit asset(-)/liability(+) presented in balance sheet 65 152
1) Net interest is presented among financial items in income statement, the rest of costs related to defined benefit plans are included in staff costs (row defined benefits plans and part of the amount reduction due to insured defined benefit obligation in staff cost specification in Note 12 Employee benefits).
2) The unfunded obligation relates to arrangements in Russia and Poland.
At the end of 2013 a total of 2,085 (2012: 2,542) Fortum employees are included in defined benefit plans providing pension benefits. During 2013 pensions or related benefits were paid to a total of 4,300 (2012: 4,303) persons.
Contributions expected to be paid during the year 2014 are EUR 11 million.
Fair value of plan assets
EUR million 2013 2012
Equity instruments 196 161
Debt instruments 155 168
Cash and cash equivalents 24 41
Real estate, of which the total EUR 74 million (2012: 74) occupied by the Group 83 80
Company's own ordinary shares 5 4
Other assets 23 46
Total 486 500
When the pension plan has been financed through an insurance company, a specification of the plan assets has not been available. In these cases the fair value of plan assets has been included in other assets.
The actual return on plan assets in Finland and Sweden totalled EUR 25 million (2012: 35).
Amounts recognised in the balance sheet by country 2013
EUR million Finland Sweden Other
Present value of funded obligations 281 221 38 540
Fair value of plan assets -262 -197 -26 -485
Deficit(+)/surplus(-) 19 24 12 55
Present value of unfunded obligations - - 10 10
Net asset(-)/liability(+) in the balance sheet 19 24 22 65
Defined benefit asset included in the assets 0 0 0 0
Pension obligations in the balance sheet 19 24 22 65
Amounts recognised in the balance sheet by country 2012
EUR million Finland Sweden Other
Present value of funded obligations 289 313 40 642
Fair value of plan assets -251 -221 -27 -499
Deficit(+)/surplus(-) 38 92 13 143
Present value of unfunded obligations - - 9 9
Net asset(-)/liability(+) in the balance sheet 38 92 22 152
Defined benefit asset included in the assets 0 0 0 0
Pension obligations in the balance sheet 38 92 22 152
The principal actuarial assumptions used
2013 2012
Finland Sweden Russia Other
Finland Sweden Russia Other
Discount rate, % 3.02 3.90 7.50 4.11 2.72 2.90 7.50 3.96
Future salary increases, % 2.20 3.00 7.50 3.72 2.20 3.50 7.50 3.54
Future pension increases, % 2.10 2.00 6.00 2.80 2.10 2.00 6.00 3.85
Rate of inflation, % 2.00 2.00 6.00 1.89 2.00 2.00 6.00 1.80
The discount rate in Finland is based on high quality European corporate bonds with maturity that best reflects the estimated term of the defined benefit pension plans. The discount rate in Sweden and Norway is based on yields on Swedish respectively Norwegian covered bonds with maturity that best reflects the estimated term of the defined benefit pension plans. The covered bonds in Sweden and Norway are considered high quality bonds as they are secured with assets. The discount rate in Russia is based on the yield of long-term government bonds which are consistent with the currency and the estimated term of the post-employment benefit obligations.
The life expectancy is the expected number of years of life remaining at a give age:
Longevity at age 65 aged Finland Sweden
45 - male 20.6 21.6
45 - female 26.4 24.1
65 - male 19.0 19.6
65 - female 24.7 22.8
The discount, inflation and salary growth rates used are the key assumptions used when calculating defined benefit obligations. Effects of 0.5 percentage point change in the rates to the defined benefit obligation on 31 December 2013, holding all other assumptions stable, are presented in the table below.
Sensitivity of defined benefit obligation to changes in assumptions
Impact to
the pension obligation
Change in the assumption Finland Sweden
0.5 % increase in discount rate -7% -8%
0.5 % decrease in discount rate 8% 9%
0.5 % increase in benefit 6% 8%
0.5 % decrease in benefit -6% -6%
0.5 % increase in salary growth rate 1% 3%
0.5 % decrease in salary growth rate -1% -3%
The methods used in preparing the sensitivity analysis did not change compared to the previous period. Change in mortality basis so that life expectancy will increase by one year increases net liability in Finland and Sweden with EUR 17 thousand (3.4%).
Maturity profile of the undiscounted defined benefit obligation for Finland and Sweden
EUR million Future benefit payments
Maturity under 1 year 20
Maturity between 1 and 5 years 96
Maturity between 5 and 10 years 109
Maturity between 10 and 20 years 213
Maturity between 20 and 30 years 177
Maturity over 30 years 153
The weighted average duration of defined benefit obligation in Finland and Sweden at the end of the 2013 is 15.9 years.


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